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Rigaku OpenLab: July 7-11, 2014, Cambodia
Benchtop X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycrystalline materials
The 5th generation MiniFlex is a general purpose X-ray diffractometer that can perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycrystalline materials. The MiniFlex is available in two variations. Operating at 600 watts (X-ray tube), the MiniFlex 600 is twice as powerful as other benchtop models, enabling faster analysis and improved overall throughput. Running at 300 watts (X-ray tube), the new MiniFlex 300 does not require an external heat exchanger. Each model is engineered to maximize flexibility in a benchtop package.
Ideally-suited for today's fast-paced XRD analyses, the new 5th generation MiniFlex delivers speed and sensitivity through innovative technology enhancements such as the optional D/teX high speed detector coupled with the new 600W X-ray source. The optional graphite monochromator, coupled with the standard scintillation counter, maximizes sensitivity by optimizing peak-to-background ratios. If resolution is paramount, incident and diffracted beam slits can be selected to provide the desired resolution. For high sample throughput, MiniFlex is the only benchtop XRD
system with an available sample changer. Whether teaching X-ray diffraction at the college and university level, or routine industrial quality assurance, the MiniFlex delivers both performance and value.
Each MiniFlex comes standard with the latest version of PDXL, Rigaku's full-function powder diffraction analysis package. The latest version of PDXL offers important new functionality; including a fundamental parameter method (FP) for more accurate peak calculation, phase identification using the Crystallography Open Database (COD), and a wizard for ab inito crystal structure analysis.
The original MiniFlex, introduced in 1973, was designed to empower a novice user to produce results, with a compact XRD instrument, comparable to those obtainable by a trained diffractionist. The new MiniFlex builds upon the characteristics which have made it popular for many years – including compact size and robust design – enabling installation in a small space with easy-to-use operation and very low cost-of-ownership.
- New 5th generation design for 2012
- Compact, fail-safe radiation enclosure
- Incident beam variable slit
- Simple installation and user training
- Factory aligned goniometer system
- Laptop computer operation
- Phase identification
- Phase quantification
- Percent (%) crystallinity
- Crystallite size and strain
- Lattice parameter refinement
- Rietveld refinement
- Molecular structure
- 6-position autosampler
- Graphite monochromator
- High speed silicon strip detector
- Air sensitive sample holder
- Travel case
MiniFlex specificationsWith total dimensions slightly larger than a personal computer, the MiniFlex is a benchtop diffractometer which incorporates technology usually reserved for much larger, much more expensive systems. Its compact size and exceptional price-to-performance ratio enable MiniFlex users to incorporate XRD analysis into scientific programs — in the laboratory or out in the field — where it has previously been considered infeasible due to budgetary or physical location constraints.
|MiniFlex 600||MiniFlex 300|
|Software||Instrument control||Control & Measurement|
|Generator||Maximum power||600 W||300 W|
|Tube voltage||40 kV||30 kV|
|Tube current||15 mA||10 mA|
|Shutter||Rotary shutter linked to interlock|
|X-ray Tube||Cu, Co, Fe, or Cr|
|Optics||Divergence slit||Fixed or variable|
|Filter||Kβ foil filter|
|Soller slit||5.0° or 2.5°|
|Scanning range||-3 to 145° (2θ)|
|Scanning speed||0.01 to 100°/min (2θ）|
|Minimum step width||0.005° (2θ）|
|Detector||Scintillation counter||NaI scintillator|
|D/teX Ultra (Optional)||High speed silicon strip detector|
|Dimensions||Main body||560W-700H-460D (mm)||560W-700H-530D (mm)|
|Heat exchanger (Optional)||460W-570H-510D (mm)||Not required|
|Weight||Main body||Approx. 80 kg||Approx. 90 kg|
|Heat exchanger (Optional)||Approx. 50 kg||Not required|
|Power Supply||Main body||100 to 240 VAC 1φ ±10%||100 to 240 VAC 1φ ±10%|
|50/60 Hz ±1% 1.0 kVA||50/60 Hz ±1% 0.7 kVA|
|PC||100 to 240 VAC 1φ ±10%|
|50/60 Hz ±1% 0.7 kVA|
|Heat exchanger (optional)||100 to 240 VAC 1φ ±10%||Not required|
|50/60Hz ±1% 1.1kVA|
University of Southampton in the spotlight
Tom McNulty discusses the MiniFlex 600 at Pittcon 2013
- ASC-6 : automatic 6 position sample changer with spinner
- Automatic 6-position sample changer is compact and rugged. Integrated spinning improves particle statistics in polycrystalline sample measurements. Fully automatic alignment. Programmable.
- Sample holders
- Various sample holder are available to meet the specific needs of particular applications.
- Sample rotation stage
- The sample rotation stage allows continuous rotation at variable
speed of the sample holder to improve particle statistics during
powder diffraction measurements.
- Graphite monochromator
- When used with a scintillation counter, the graphite monochromator optimizes sensitivity by lowering the background level. It improves signal-to-noise by eliminating fluorescence from Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni containing materials.
- Air-sensitive sample holder
- An enclosed sample holder is available for users studying materials that might degrade in the presence of oxygen.
- D/teX Ultra high speed detector
- This 1D silicon strip detector is optionally available for fast, high-resolution scanning.
PDXL is a one-stop full-function powder diffraction analysis software suite. The modular design, advanced engine and user-friendly GUI have been satisfying both experienced and novice users since PDXL was released in 2007.
PDXL provides various analysis tools such as automatic phase identification, quantitative analysis, crystallite-size analysis, lattice constants refinement, Rietveld analysis, ab initio structure determination, etc.
Fundamental parameter methodThe peak shape in a powder diffraction pattern would appear to be a delta function if measured under ideal conditions. In reality, the peak shape changes depending on a number of measurement conditions: wavelength distribution of the source, optical systems, slit conditions, crystallite size and strain, and so on. The peak shapes obtained from measurements made under real-world conditions are described using an empirical function such as a split pseudo-Voigt function, or a split Pearson VII function which has a good agreement with the obtained peak shapes. The fundamental parameter method (FP method) is a method to calculate peak shape by convolution of the shapes caused by all the instrumental and sample conditions.
Phase identification using CODThe Crystallography Open Database (COD) is a free, public-domain database of the crystal structures published in International Union of Crystallography, Mineralogical Society of America and so on. PDXL can incorporate both ICDD/PDF-2 and COD to perform automatic phase identification, adding the COD library of over 150,000 crystal structures to PDXL 2’s already substantial capabilities.
Wizard for ab initio crystal structure analysisRecently, there have been many published examples of ab initio crystal structure analysis performed on powder diffraction data. This development is attributed primarily to significant improvements in PC processing speed and in the efficiency of the algorithms used for structure determination.
PDXL has so far provided all of the functions required for ab initio crystal structure analysis, such as indexing, structure determination and structure refinement by the Rietveld method. Now the “Structure Analysis Wizard” is available in PDXL to provide support and guidance for users undertaking the complicated procedure of structure analysis, particularly of organic compounds. This wizard system will make it possible for even the beginner to achieve analytical success
Clustering functionThe PDXL clustering feature can group multiple scan data based on the similarity of powder diffraction patterns and peak positions, and displays the grouped data in an easy-to-read tree. This is particularly effective when it comes to classifying and screening the data from a large number of scans.
- Search/Match analysis with PDF-2 and Crystallography Open Database
- Quantitative analysis
- Percent crystallinity
- Crystallite size and strain
- Cell refinement
- Residual stress
- Whole pattern profile fitting
- Ab initio structure solving with wizard