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Molecular orientation of stretched rubber

AppNote B-XRD1039: molecular orientation of stretched rubber

Background

Diffraction patterns of stretched rubber differ between the machine direction (MD) and the transverse direction (TD), as the molecules orient themselves according to the tensile direction. Since XRD measurements using 0D or 1D detectors perform scans targeting only a part of a diffraction ring, it can be difficult to obtain diffraction patterns because of the arrangement of the molecules. In contrast, with XRD measurements using a 2D detector, diffraction patterns are gained from 360° in one measurement, making it easy to identify the molecular orientation of a sample. If a sample is amorphous, it will show a broad ring pattern known as halo. If a sample is crystalline, it will show a narrow ring pattern or, depending on the orientation, a ring pattern that has become partly spot-like.

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