The grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GI-WAXS) technique is often employed for the measurement of ultrathin film specimens since their very weak signals can be effectively observed. GI-WAXS can be applied to materials that cannot be evaluated by transmission WAXS, such as thin film on a substrate or a polymer film with metal deposition on the back surface. The combination of a 2D-SAXS/WAXS attachment with an aperture slit and a 2D detector allows the acquisition of clearly resolved 2D diffracted images by a general X-ray diffractometer with a line-shaped incident beam.
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Laboratory micro-spot XRD residual stress analysis with both iso- and side-inclination methods