Commonly employed techniques to non-destructively determine the composition of an unknown sample are X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray fluorescence provides elemental composition information for boron (B) through uranium (U) from parts-per-million (PPM) to percent (%) levels. Using fundamental parameters (FP) algorithms, XRF can provide quantitative analysis without the need for reference standards. X-ray diffraction provides phase composition identification and can distinguish the major, minor, and trace compounds present in a sample. XRD analysis includes the mineral name of the substance, chemical formula, crystalline system, and reference pattern number from the ICDD International database. Standardless quantitative information can also be obtained from XRD using Rietveld Analysis.
Handheld Raman identifies chemical composition
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Application notesThe following application notes are relevant to this application
X-ray CT, Computed tomography
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Handheld Raman for raw material identification and finished product authentication using 1064 nm Raman analysis.