Skip to main content

Rigaku Journal (ISSN 2187-9974)

Please click here for inquiries about the Rigaku Journal, including requests for permission to reproduce articles or figures from articles.

Summer 2023, Volume 39, No. 2


Summer 2023, Vol. 39, No. 2

Bulk chemical composition of samples recovered from asteroid Ryugu

Hisashi HOMMA and Kazuko MOTOMURA

 — Analysis of extraterrestrial material by WDXRF and TG-MS —


Spacecraft HAYABUSA2 successfully collected a 5.4 g sample from the surface of asteroid Ryugu that was returned to Earth on Dec. 6, 2020. Analysis of the asteroid Ryugu sample was performed using a ZSX Primus IV wavelength dispersive X-ray...

Dramatic improvement in the throughput of X-ray topography

Kenta Shimamoto


Rigaku launched a high-speed X-ray topography system with the improved throughput of 10–20 wafers/hour (3–6 min/wafer). High-speed image acquisition is achieved using an uncollimated divergent beam and the HyPix-3000HE hybrid pixel detector. This technical note explains two major features that contribute to this improvement by dramatically reducing the time...

Powder X-ray Diffraction Basic Course Fifth Installment: Quantitative analysis

Takahiro Kuzumaki


Powder X-ray diffraction is widely used as an analytical method to evaluate various crystalline materials. This paper describes the basics and evaluation examples of the RIR (Reference Intensity Ratio) method and the Rietveld method.

In the RIR method, quantitative analysis is performed based on the integrated intensity of diffraction...

Powder X-ray Diffraction Basic Course Sixth Installment: Evaluation of crystallite size

Masaaki Konishi


Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) can obtain a variety of information, not just a single piece of information. In the fifth installment of the powder X-ray diffraction basic course, quantitative analysis was described. This sixth installment describes the evaluation of crystallite sizes.

The Scherrer method is one analysis technique commonly...

XSPA-400 ER - X-ray seamless pixel array detector

The XSPA-400 ER (XSPA: X-ray Seamless* Pixel Array, ER: Energy Resolution) is a next-generation 2D semiconductor detector with a higher energy resolution than conventional models. With this higher energy resolution, the XSPA-400 ER reduces X-ray fluorescence, which can be a significant source of background intensity for powder diffraction patterns on...

Winter 2023, Volume 39, No. 1


Winter 2023, Vol. 39, No. 1

X-ray diffraction measurement of layered manganese dioxide that can store/release heat repeatedly by desorbing/absorbing water molecules to/from moist air

Norihiko L. Okamoto, Takuya Hatakeyama, Hongyi Li and Tetsu Ichitsubo

Discovery of thermal storage materials that can utilize low-temperature waste heat

We have discovered that layered manganese dioxide (birnessite, δ-MnO₂) can store/release heat through an intercalation mechanism in which water molecules in a moist atmosphere are deintercalated/intercalated between the layers. The material has been found to have an excellent balance...

3D molecular visualization of a human antibody by MAXS measurement reveals significant differences between the solution and crystalline states

Takashi Matsumoto, Akihito Yamano, and Takashi Sato

X-ray solution scattering experiments have been utilized to analyze structures and conformational changes of biological macromolecules. Those experiments employ X-ray scattering data in a small-angle region, a technique called Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). SAXS experiments often focus on the macroscopic shapes and sizes of molecules. However, in principle, the...

Atomic-scale structural analysis by total scattering profiles

Masatsugu Yoshimoto*

In the past, total scattering data was used to obtain the pair distribution function (PDF) G(r). However, it has become clear that it is also possible to calculate characteristic values related to the physical properties of materials from the total scattering data. In this paper, we introduce two applications using...

X-ray fluorescence analysis of liquid samples without helium gas

Yuri Maruko

Helium gas is becoming more difficult to obtain these days due to decreased supply and increased demand. In X-ray fluorescence analysis, helium gas is often used in the analysis of liquid samples, while processing samples as solids is possible under a vacuum. In this article we introduce two liquid sample...

Basics of X-ray CT reconstruction--Principles and applications of iterative reconstruction

Takumi Ohta

This article describes the principles and applications of iterative reconstruction in X-ray computed tomography. We use several real examples to show how iterative reconstruction can produce higher-quality reconstructed images than the conventional reconstruction method.

This article describes the principles and applications of iterative reconstruction (IR) methods. Section 2 describes the...

NEX CG II Advanced Cartesian Geometry EDXRF

NEX CG II is a multi-element, multi-purpose energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer that performs rapid qualitative and quantitative trace elemental analyses and addresses needs across many industries. This next-generation, high-end spectrometer is ideal for trace heavy metal and halogen analysis, which is in increasing demand for several sectors. These...