Microfocus rotating anode X-ray generator

Protein crystallography, small molecule crystallography, SAXS, micro-diffraction, phase contrast imaging

MicroMax™-007 HF

The MicroMax™ 007 HF is the most widely used home lab X-ray source for protein crystallography and a popular source for small molecule crystallographers who need the additional flux of a rotating anode generator. The original MicroMax™ 007 introduced the world to the concept of a sub-100 micron focal spot size along the increased brilliance that can be more effectively used to illuminate small crystals. The current HF version increases the power loading by 50% over the original model providing an X-ray source that rivals second generation synchrotron sources - but with better beam stability and, of course, easy access.

Engineered for Productivity

Productivity can be measured in many ways but the up-time of a system is perhaps one of the most important issues. Unlike competing products, the MicroMax-007 HF was designed with up-time in mind. Filament changes are quick and painless with Rigaku microfocus generators. Superior Rigaku engineering has reduced this service headache to a 45 minute maintenance routine of simply changing a cartridge.
Designed for Flexibility
Featuring a robust direct-drive anode, the MicroMax-007 HF compact tower assembly contains both the vacuum chamber and turbo-molecular pump for fast pump downs. Conveniently mounted on the generator tabletop, the tower may be easily moved for integration with various optics, goniometers and detectors.
Functionality Redefined
Perhaps the best way to define the functionality of the MicroMax 007 HF is to quote one of our satisfied customers:
“We recently replaced our optics-equipped 5 kW rotating anode with a Rigaku Micromax-007 HF and VariMax HF optics. We continue to use our original IP detector. Having been involved in the purchase of several generation of generator I'm used to the assurances of ‘This is almost as powerful as a synchrotron beam line.' This time is unusual in that the promise has been fulfilled. We have seen exposure times go from 25-30 minutes to 30 seconds, and visible diffraction from crystals we never previously expected to diffract at home. The new generator has made a major difference in our ability to investigate macromolecular crystallographic problems.” — Dr Paul Taylor, University of Edinburgh, 
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  • Smallest focal spot size available on a rotating anode generator (70 μm diameter circle)
  • 1.2 kW power in a small beam provides greater flux density and less background for small samples
  • Unique pre-aligned and pre-crystallized filament cartridges minimize maintenance
  • Anode head can easily be moved and positioned for optimal experimental configuration
  • Choice of anode materials: Cu, Cr, Mo, and Co
  • Two ports for optimal use of instrument investment
  • Extended anode and filament lifetimes

MicroMax™-007 HF specifications

X-ray generator

  • Maximum power: 1.2 kW
  • Voltage: 20 – 60 kV, in 1 kV steps
  • Current: 10 – 30 mA, in 1 mA steps
  • HV stability: ±0.015%
  • Power requirements: 3-phase 200/220 VAC, 12 A

Anode assembly

  • Available targets: Cu, Cr, Mo and Co
  • Diameter: 99 mm
  • Rotation speed: 9000 RPM
  • Drive mechanism: Direct-drive
  • Vacuum seal: Low-torque magnetic fluid
  • Shaft bearing material: Ceramic ball bearing
  • Water seal: Mechanical

Tube tower assembly

  • X-ray window: 0.2 mm thick beryllium
  • Available ports: 2
  • Shutter type: High-speed rotary, one per port
  • Vacuum: Integrated turbo-molecular pump

X-ray source data

  • Filament: W, annealed and pre-aligned
  • Take-off type: Horizontal point focus
  • Effective size at 6° take-off angle: 0.07 mm circle for Cu, Cr and Co, 0.15 x 0.1 mm ellipse for Mo




Focal spot size (μm) all optics φ = 70
Power (kW) all optics 1.2
Beam size at sample (μm) VariMax HF 208
VariMax HF LFE 189
VariMax VHF 100
VariMax VHF LFE 87
Divergence (mR) VariMax HF 4.8
VariMax HF LFE 4.8
VariMax VHF 10.0
VariMax VHF LFE 10.0
Flux at φ = 100 μm (photons/sec) VariMax HF 6.13 x 108
VariMax HF LFE 8.16 x 108
VariMax VHF 1.68 x 109
VariMax VHF LFE 1.93 x 109
Fluence (photons/sec/mm2) VariMax HF 7.80 x 1010
VariMax HF LFE 1.04 x 1011
VariMax VHF 2.14 x 1011
VariMax VHF LFE 2.56 x 1011
Brilliance (photons/sec/mm2/mR2) VariMax HF 3.39 x 109
VariMax HF LFE 4.51 x 109
VariMax VHF 2.14 x 109
VariMax VHF LFE 2.56 x 109

MicroMax™-007 HF accessories

  • Dual wavelength capability
  • Optics
  • Radiation enclosures
  • Extension tables

Dual wavelength capability

A special version of the 007 (MicroMax 007 HF DW) is available with a dual banded anode. The target of choice is selected through an anode translation adjustment and this additional mechanism limits the generator to one X-ray port. The user can switch between wavelengths without realigning the system when used in conjunction with a VariMax DW optic. The anode of the MicroMax-007 HF DW is double banded with Cu/Cr or Cu/Mo target combinations available as standard configurations and on special request, Kα and Kβ lines of Cr, Cu, Mo, and Ag are available in custom combinations.


Various optics are available for the MicroMax 007 HF depending on the desired beam characteristics and wavelength of the anode target.

The VariMax optics product line is the most suitable for single crystal applications. These optical systems all feature a patented, continuously adjustable divergence slit assembly that enables users to adjust the X-ray beam divergence to allow for optimal spot separation for each crystal. The LFE designation refers to optics that are manufactured with a special low figure error substrate, resulting in a more efficient optic with a smaller beam size.

Optic system

Divergence range

Beam size at sample


VariMax HF
4.8 - 0
Protein crystallography with Cu radiation and small crystals
VariMax HF LFE
4.8 - 0
Protein crystallography with Cu radiation and small crystals
VariMax VHF
10.0 - 0
Protein crystallography with Cu radiation and very small crystals
VariMax HF LFE
10.0 - 0
Protein crystallography with Cu radiation and very small crystals
VariMax Cr
3.2 - 0
Protein crystallography with Cr radiation for SAD phasing
VariMax Ag
2.7 - 0
Small molecule crystallography with Ag radiation for high Z electron density studies. Available in Kα and Kβ
VariMax Co
3.2 - 0
Protein crystallography with Co radiation for SAD phasing
VariMax Mo
3.5 - 0
Small molecule crystallography with Mo radiation and small crystals

Radiation enclosures

Radiation enclosures can be designed and built to meet your specifications. Whether you want a walk-in enclosure that gives you maximum maneuverability when working around the X-ray instrumentation or a table top enclosure to give maximum safety protection when the X-ray equipment is housed in a working laboratory, Rigaku can provide what you need.

Extension tables

The MicroMax 007 HF is provided with a cabinet that contains the electronics and a breadboard top to position the anode head. Depending on your needs, extension tables can be added to either side of the electronics cabinet to give you flexibility in utilizing the left port, the right port or both ports. Extension tables have a optical bench breadboard top for maximum stability of the X-ray beam.

MicroMax™-007 HF applications

The MicroMax 007 HF can be used for a variety of applications where a small stable X-ray beam is desired. Final beam characteristics are defined by the optic that is used. Many different models of optics are available based on whether the desired beam is focused or parallel, and if focused, what is the desired beam size at the focal point and divergence of the beam.

  • Protein crystallography
  • Small molecule crystallography
  • SAXS
  • Micro-diffraction
  • Phase contrast imaging
  • Dual wavelength capabilities available when DW option is purchased.

Using the home source to good advantage

by Anna Plechanovona (University of Dundee) and Jim Naismith (University of St Andrews)

Excerpt: The new cell was a = 50.5 Å b = 65.1 Å c = 189.6 Å with space group P2₁2₁2₁. Old hands with burnt fingers will recognize that this looks very bad. The 90° image will be overlapped to an unusable extent as the long axis is parallel to the beam.The in-­‐house data collection set up came to the rescue. First we drove the χ axis (we have a partial χ goniometer) to its maximum deflection (45°) to try to move the long axis to a more amenable orientation. The image looked more hopeful but we knew we would still have to sacrifice resolution to ensure processability ( a painful compromise).

We were saved by another feature of our home source, the swing out angle. It allows higher resolution data to be collected with the detector positioned further back allowing better separation of spots. Such orientations of the detector are handled automatically in processing. By pushing the detector out 20° we obtained a new image. Although overlapping a little, the data were easily processed, we collected the data in three passes (different settings on the goniostat) to ensure completeness and redundancy. The new data gave spectacular quality maps and allowed us to tell the story.

Dr. Arwen Pearson from University of Leeds discusses her new HighFlux HomeLab system

Professor Bill Hunter
Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery
College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee

The decision to purchase from Rigaku was based on several criteria. Our group in Dundee requires equipment that would provide excellent in-house data collection including suitable automation, where high throughput is needed in support of early stage drug discovery. We need the capability to obtain highly redundant data for in-house anomalous dispersion phasing and the capacity to test and characterise large numbers of crystals from our more challenging problems in a manner that ensures we can optimise use of synchrotron time. The configuration from Rigaku matched perfectly to our multi-purpose requirements. My very positive experience of support from the company for almost 20 years now, also provided a degree of security in the decision.

Dean of Research in the College of Life Sciences, Prof. Mike Ferguson and
the Scientific Officer in Structural Biology, Dr Paul Fyfe with the newly commissioned
Rigaku X-ray generator, detector and sample changer.

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