Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) Kratky camera system

Small angle X-ray scattering

NanoMAX

Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a valuable non-destructive technique for reliably characterizing samples with respect to their size, shape, size distribution and structural order/disorder. The NanoMAX SAXS system is a modernized 2D Kratky system that eliminates data corrections required of traditional Kratky systems with the added benefit of offering compactness and superb flux for samples when compared to standard pinhole systems.

Laboratory space is a precious and expensive resource leaving researchers to favor high quality, compact systems where possible. The NanoMAX design satisfies this criterion well in that the system size is approximately 1 m long whereas traditional pinhole systems usually require 3 m system lengths or longer. The NanoMAX system can be installed on a variety of X-ray sources, including the open port of a rotating anode, and has the advantage that higher flux is delivered to the sample in a much shorter camera length compared to pinhole SAXS systems. Most importantly, the NanoMAX incorporates features and hardware to support SAXS data collection for both isotropic and anisotropic scatterers with a very wide q-ranges of 0.0043 Å⁻¹

A compact, high performance SAXS system

The very nature of a SAXS experiment imposes strict requirements on the intensity of X-rays on the sample. Parasitic scattering may seriously impact data quality in the small angle region, especially for weakly scattering samples. Therefore, the probe beam needs to be “cleaned” by pinholes, which masks a significant portion of the direct beam. The development of the “scatterless pinhole” drastically improved intensity by eliminating the need for a “guard pinhole”, but it cannot completely eliminate parasitic scattering. The NanoMAX uses a “2D Kratky“ design, which delivers high flux on the sample while totally eliminating parasitic scattering. SAXS systems can come in a variety of forms, each with advantages and disadvantages for supporting a variety of sample types, including weakly scattering samples or those whose experimental requirements require environmental variation, such as temperature, pressure or stress.

Universal sample holder with WAXS capability

The NanoMAX system includes a universal sample stage design that supports a variety of additional stages with kinematic mounts. The stages can quickly be swapped using a one-hand operation for installation. Additionally, the sample stages are encoded for automatic recognition and software control. Sample changing and analysis are almost effortless due to this new modular design. Stage options include a solid sample stage, capillary sample stage, a rotary stage and others.

Sample stages mount on a gantry system that transports the sample stage to change the distance from the detector, thus changing the measurable q range for both SAXS and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments. The gantry also has motions for positioning the samples within the X-ray beam. This shared positioning minimizes complexity and cost of the system while extending the application to a broader range of samples and experimental configurations. For example, the automated sample-to-detector distance change function allows for quick and automated change of the q range to extend measurement to wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments. Moreover, additional stages extend experimental measurements for grazing incidence (GI) and for high temperature.

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Benefits:

  • A compact system that delivers high flux on the sample
  • Measure large q-space with a smaller, more affordable detector
  • Truly parasitic scattering free, unlike pinhole systems that still retain some residual parasitic scattering
  • Ideal for isotropic samples and GI SAXS
  • High q resolution

Features:

  • The beam is focused at the detector to delivery both high angular resolution with low q measuring capability
  • Universal stage makes experimental changes from isotropic to anisotropic samples easy
  • Sample stages are encoded for automatic detection
  • Variable sample-to-detector distance allow measurable q-range from 0.0043 Å⁻¹
  • Easy and automated qmin vs. flux change
  • Can be configured with different sources and detectors.
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