Identification of an unknown sludge

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an excellent analysis technique for identifying unknown solid materials. The XRD pattern can act as a fingerprint to identify unknown materials in crystalline and semi-crystalline samples.

Figure 1 is a picture of a sludge presented from a deteriorated water pump. The X-ray diffraction pattern of this material (Figure 2), acquired using a Rigaku MiniFlex benchtop diffractometer, reveals that this sample contains both crystalline and amorphous components. The broad humps in the pattern come from the amorphous component(s) while the sharp peaks come from the crystalline portion. By determining the location and intensity of the crystalline diffraction peaks and matching to a known database of crystalline materials, it is possible to identify the crystalline component of the sample. 


Figure 1: Sludge sample from water pump


Figure 2: Phase ID of dried sludge sample

In this case the peaks reveal that the material contains both calcium oxalate monohydrate and iron sulfide.

MiniFlexNew sixth generation MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer (XRD) is a multipurpose analytical instrument that can determine: phase identification and quantification, percent (%) crystallinity, crystallite size and strain, lattice parameter refinement, Rietveld refinement, and molecular structure. It is widely used in research, especially in material science and chemistry, as well as in industry for research and quality control. It is the newest addition to MiniFlex series of benchtop X-ray diffraction analyzers from Rigaku, which began with the introduction of the original MiniFlex system decades ago. Read more about Rigaku's MiniFlex...

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