Benchtop powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument

Qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of poly-crystalline materials

MiniFlex

Benchtop X-ray diffractometer for phase analysis

New sixth generation MiniFlex benchtop X-ray diffractometer is a multipurpose powder diffraction analytical instrument that can determine: crystalline phase identification (phase ID) and quantification, percent (%) crystallinity, crystallite size and strain, lattice parameter refinement, Rietveld refinement, and molecular structure. It is widely used in research, especially in material science and chemistry, as well as in industry for research and quality control. It is the newest addition to the MiniFlex series of benchtop X-ray diffraction analyzers from Rigaku, which began with the introduction of the original MiniFlex XRD system decades ago.

X-ray powder diffraction with HPAD detector

MiniFlex XRD system delivers speed and sensitivity through innovative technology advances, including the HyPix-400 MF 2D hybrid pixel array detector (HPAD) together with an available 600 W X-ray source and new 8-position automatic sample changer.

Hybrid pixel array detector (HPAD)

This new direct photon counting detector enables high-speed, low-noise data collection and may be operated in 0D and 1D modes for conventional XRD analysis and 2D mode for samples with coarse grain size and/or preferred orientation.

XRD accessories enhance your MiniFlex

A variety of X-ray tube anodes – along with a range of sample rotation and positioning accessories, together with a variety of temperature attachments – are offered to ensure that the MiniFlex X-ray diffraction (XRD) system is versatile enough to perform challenging qualitative and quantitative analyses of a broad range of samples, whether performing research or routine quality control. The new (Gen 6) MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer system embodies the Rigaku philosophy of “Leading with Innovation” by offering the world’s most advanced benchtop system for powder diffractometry.

Advanced SmartLab Studio II powder diffraction software

Each MiniFlex comes standard with the latest version of SmartLab Studio II, Rigaku's full-function powder diffraction analysis package. The latest version of SmartLab Studio II offers important new functionality; including a fundamental parameter method (FP) for more accurate peak calculation, phase identification using the Crystallography Open Database (COD), and a wizard for ab inito crystal structure analysis.

MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer history

The Rigaku MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer (XRD) is historically significant in that it was the first commercial benchtop (tabletop or desktop) X-ray diffractometry instrument. When introduced in 1973, the original Miniflex™ benchtop XRD was about one-tenth the size, and dramatically less expensive, than conventional X-ray diffraction (XRD) equipment of the period. The original instrument (Gen 1), and its successor that was introduced in 1976 (Gen 2), employed a horizontal goniometer with data output provided by an internal strip chart recorder. The third generation (Gen 3) benchtop diffractometer, introduced in 1995, was called Miniflex+. It provided a dramatic advance in X-ray power to 450 watts (by operating at 30kV and 15mA) and Windows® PC computer control. Both the Miniflex+ and the succeeding generations of bench diffractometers employ a vertical goniometer and allow the use of an automatic sample changer. The fourth generation (Gen 4) Miniflex II benchtop XRD was introduced in 2006 and offered the advance of a monochromatic X-ray source and a D/teX Ultra 1D silicon strip detector. The fifth generation (Gen 5) MiniFlex600 desktop XRD, introduced in 2012, built upon this legacy with 600W of available power and new SmartLab Studio II powder diffraction software.
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2DMF
2DMF2
Data example from HyPix-400 MF detector

Overview:

  • New 6th generation design
  • Compact, fail-safe radiation enclosure
  • Incident beam variable slit
  • Simple installation and user training
  • Factory aligned goniometer system
  • Laptop computer operation
Measurements:
  • Phase identification
  • Phase quantification (phase ID)
  • Percent (%) crystallinity
  • Crystallite size and strain
  • Lattice parameter refinement
  • Rietveld refinement
  • Molecular structure
Options:
  • 8-position autosampler
  • Graphite monochromator
  • D/teX Ultra: silicon strip detector
  • HyPix-400 MF: 2D HPAD detector
  • Air sensitive sample holder
  • Travel case

MiniFlex accessories

AccessoryASC-8 : automatic 8 position sample changer with spinner
Automatic 8-position sample changer is compact and rugged. Integrated spinning improves particle statistics in polycrystalline sample measurements. Fully automatic alignment. Programmable.
 
AccessorySample holders
Various sample holder are available to meet the specific needs of particular applications.
 
AccessorySpecimen rotation attachment
The sample rotation stage allows continuous rotation at variable
speed of the sample holder to improve particle statistics during
powder diffraction measurements.
 
AccessoryGraphite monochromator for D/teX Ultra
The graphite monochromator optimizes sensitivity by lowering the background level. It improves signal-to-noise by eliminating fluorescence from Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni containing materials.
 
AccessoryAir-sensitive sample holder
An enclosed sample holder is available for users studying materials that might degrade in the presence of oxygen.
 
AccessoryD/teX Ultra high speed detector
This 1D silicon strip detector is optionally available for fast, high-resolution scanning.
 
AccessoryBTS 500 high temperature attachment
The high temperature attachment can heat a sample to do in-situ powder diffraction measurements under high temperature conditions from ambient to 500°C.
 
AccessoryHyPix-400 MF: 2D HPAD detector
Advanced hybrid array pixel detector (HPAD) with zero background noise, an active area of ​​400 mm2, spatial resolution of 100 μm, and maximum count rate of 106 cps/pixel or more. HyPix-400 can operate in 0D, 1D or 2D modes.

SmartLab Studio II is a new Windows®-based software suite developed for the flagship Rigaku SmartLab X-ray diffractometer that integrates user privileges, measurements, analyses, data visualization and reporting. Newly available for the MiniFlex, the modular (plugin) architecture of this software delivers state-of-the-art interoperability between the functional components. Just one click switches from measurement to analysis. Watch real-time scans from one experiment while simultaneously analyzing other data on the same desktop by selecting an appropriate layout. The software provides various analysis tools such as automatic phase identification, quantitative analysis, crystallite-size analysis, lattice constants refinement, Rietveld analysis, ab initio structure determination, etc.

Powder XRD: phase identification with a variety of available databases

Peak position, FWHM, integrated intensity and crystallite size are calculated by profile fitting. Rigaku’s optional “Hybrid Search/Match” uses peak-base qualification, which detects heavily distorted lattices, to identify solid solution phases that are difficult to identify. It also can determine whether preferred orientation exists based on decomposed peak intensities.

Powder XRD: quantification package

This option supports internal standard, external standard, and standard addition calibration methods. Calibration curves are used to quantify specific phases in the sample.

Powder XRD: comprehensive analysis package

This optional package can provide analysis results such as crystalline size, lattice strain, lattice parameters refinement, % crystallinity based on fully automated profile fitting executed after loading measured data. Results obtained aid in understanding the relationship between structure and physical properties, and allow users to compare results across different samples.

Powder XRD: direct derivation analysis package

The direct derivation (DD) method was invented by Professor Hideo Toraya of Rigaku Corporation in 2016. It quantifies phases from all integrated diffraction intensities and the chemical formulas of each phase found. Compared to the classical RIR method, where a single integrated peak intensity and RIR number are used, the DD method is less affected by preferred orientation and peak overlap.

Powder XRD: Rietveld analysis package

The package performs phase identification followed by Whole Powder Pattern Fitting (WPPF). The Rietveld analysis refines crystal structure or quantifies the phases directly from measured data, requiring neither reference samples nor a calibration curve. The whole powder pattern decomposition (Pawley method) is based on both the measured peak positions, and peaks shapes.


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