X-ray topography imaging system

For non-destructive evaluation of single-crystalline materials


Non-destructive dislocation imaging

Rigaku XRTmicron is a fast, high-resolution laboratory X-ray topography system for non-destructive dislocation imaging. Various types of dislocations and non-uniformity within single crystal wafers (such as Si, SiC, GaN, Ge, GaAs, quartz, sapphire, rutile, calcium fluoride etc.) can be imaged across wafers up to 300 mm in diameter. X-ray topography is a widely used dislocation analysis technique for both research and development and process control by various single crystal, wafer and device manufacturers.

Topography engineered for performance

Unmatched scan speed ten times higher compared to that of conventional systems is achieved by combining a high-brilliance dual-wavelengths X-ray source, the MicroMax-007 DW, and X-ray mirrors optimized for the topography application. Both Cu and Mo X-ray anodes and their mirrors are simultaneously mounted on the system and switched on-demand to perform reflection and transmission measurements without any system reconfiguration. A digital image of dislocations is captured by a either a high resolution (5.4 μm pixels) or ultra-high resolution (2.4 μm pixels) CCD camera. Both cameras can be simultaneously mounted on the system and switched on-demand depending on the required resolution.

Fully automated X-ray topography

Engineered for usability, the entire data image collection process - including anode switch, detector switch, optics switch and alignment, sample alignment and image collection - is fully automated. Furthermore, the system can be combined with a wafer loader and image recognition based dislocation counting software. Customized recipes can be built to automate the entire process from loading a wafer to reporting dislocation densities.


  • High-brilliance dual-wavelength X-ray source: MicroMax-007 DW
  • High resolution CCD camera: XTOP (5.4 μm pixels)
  • Ultra-high resolution CCD camera: HR-XTOP (2.4 μm pixels)
  • Horizontal sample mount for minimum artificial strain to wafers
  • Automatic wafer curvature correction for best dislocation image quality
  • Automated system operation including X-ray anode switch, detector switch, optics switch and alignment, sample alignment, and image collection
  • Automated dislocation analysis
  • 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 inch wafers supported
  • Wafer loader compatible

SiC 3D dislocation image

Below are a 3D image (1.2 mm × 1.2 mm × 0 .4 mm) showing the threading screw dislocation (TSD),
threading edge dislocation (TED), and basal plane dislocation (BPD), and their cross-section images.
The leftmost figure is a topographic image obtained by the standard transmission geometry.

XRTmicron application example

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