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Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics

Thickness, composition and properties of solar cells

Originally developed to provide electrical power for orbiting space satellites in the 1960s, photovoltaic (PV or solar cell) technology is now mostly used for grid-connected utility power generation. In typical form, solar cells are packaged in photovoltaic modules and are often connected in multiples, as solar photovoltaic arrays, to directly convert energy from the sun into electricity. The term photovoltaic denotes the unbiased operating mode of a photodiode in which current through the device is entirely due to absorbed light energy.

By far, the most prevalent bulk material for solar cells is crystalline silicon. Cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and amorphous silicon (A-Si) are three thin-film technologies often used as outdoor photovoltaic solar power production. In addition, other photovoltaic technologies span from light-absorbing dyes (DSSC) to organic/polymer and silicon thin-films.

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is typically used to measure the thickness and composition of metal-containing thin-film layers as part of production process control. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectometry (XRR) are used in R&D to physically characterize layer properties like roughness, density, porosity, and crystal structure.

Rigaku recommends the following systems:


XRD

Sistema avanzado de rayos XRD de alta resolución y tecnología de punta, impulsado por el software del sistema experto Guidance

X-ray CT

Microtomografía de muestra estacionaria de alta velocidad, de muestras grandes

Nanotomografía de resolución ultra alta utilizando geometría de haz paralelo.

Microtomografía de muestras grandes de alta resolución, de sobremesa

EDXRF

El analizador elemental EDXRF de geometría cartesiana de alto rendimiento mide de Na a U en sólidos, líquidos, polvos y películas delgadas