X-ray diffraction (XRD) for determining orientation
Single crystals form the basis of a wide range of technological products. Electronic properties of single crystals are critical to the semiconductor industry while magnetic properties of single crystals are important to the performance of magnetic storage devices. Mechanical and chemical properties of single crystals underlie advances in materials science. In most cases, the properties of a single crystal are not only a function of the type and quality of the crystal, but strongly dependent on its orientation. Determination of orientation thus represents an essential step for using single crystals in technological applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has become the universal method for determining crystal orientation.