Study dynamic processes that need to be investigated in situ
X-ray diffraction (XRD) at non-ambient conditions can be used for a variety of applications, including the study of dynamic processes that need to be investigated in situ. Examples of such processes are the reactions involving the solid state, phase transitions, crystallite growth, thermal expansion, etc. X-ray diffraction can be used as a very informative complement to other, more traditional, thermal analytical techniques (thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, etc.), thus effectively providing phase identification, texture analysis, and crystallite size measurement. Shown at right is the Anton Paar TTK 450 Low Temperature Chamber for SmartLab and Ultima IV. Sample cooling and heating stage with liquid nitrogen cooling. Large temperature range and ease of use for a wide range of applications. With beam knife and optional zero background sample holder for investigation of organic materials at low 2θ angles. Temperature range: -190°C to 600°C Atmospheres: air, inert gas, vacuum(10⁻² mbar).