For elemental and chemical analysis
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, by a prism or grating. Later the concept was expanded greatly to include any interaction with radiative energy as a function of its wavelength or frequency. Spectroscopic data are often represented by an emission, absorption or Raman spectrum, a plot of the response of interest as a function of wavelength or frequency.
Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)
LIBS is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. The laser is focused to form a plasma, which atomizes and excites samples. It is very similar to arc/spark emission spectroscopy. Rigaku offer the handheld KT-100 for the analysis of metals.
X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
XRF is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays rays. The phenomenon is widely used for elemental analysis and chemical analysis, particularly in the investigation of metals, glass, ceramics, and building materials, and for research in geochemistry, forensic science, archaeology and art objects. Rigaku offer a wide range of EDXRF and WDXRF spectrometers.
Raman spectroscopy relies on inelastic scattering, or Raman scattering, of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. The laser light interacts with molecular vibrations, phonons or other excitations in the system, resulting in the energy of the laser photons being shifted up or down. The shift in energy gives information about the vibrational modes in the system. Infrared spectroscopy yields similar, but complementary, information. Rigaku offers a range of handheld Raman spectrometers.