Figure 1 shows typical sample preparation methods for X-ray fluorescence analysis. In general, the shadowed methods are the most popular. Quality control analysis, which requires high precision, normally requires large samples as much as 20 mm–30 mm in diameter. However, in many cases it is difficult to prepare samples large enough or in sufficient quantity for R&D or troubleshooting. Because these samples are precious, there is a strong requirement to recover them after XRF analysis for other analysis methods. This paper introduces sample preparation methods useful for trace sample (small pieces, small amounts of powder, etc.) analysis.