Lithium ion battery (LIB) has been successfully applied to portable electronics for the last decade. Recently, application of LIB in the field of energy vehicles and stationary storage systems has attracted considerable attention, in order to efficiently utilize renewable energies such as solar and wind energies. As higher energy capacity and power, long-term stability, safety, and lower costs are required, further development and studies are accelerated around the globe. To attain this goal, extensive research about the materials and the configurations of the battery is being carried out. In addition, characterization techniques are strongly required because it is essential to understand the fundamental behavior of the material in the electrochemical reaction, the mechanism of cell deterioration, the interphase phenomena of the electrode and electrolyte, and many indeterminate ideas not yet well understood.