XRD, XRR and SAXS for nano-scale characterization
Spanning a wide range of research fields, such as biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering, nanotechnology is uniquely interdisciplinary in character. The common factor in nanotechnology is the lateral dimension of the structures studied. Defined as materials being in, or having components in, the one billionth (10⁻⁹) of a meter range, nanotechnology research and development relies on accurate measurement of atomic and molecular distances within structures ranging from semiconductor devices to nano-powders. Since the dimensions of X-ray wavelengths are of the same magnitude as the size of nanostructures, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and associated techniques are primary tools for the nanotechnology researcher. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) determines layer thickness, roughness, and density. High-resolution X-ray diffraction can measure layer thickness, roughness, chemical composition, lattice spacing, relaxation and more. X-ray diffuse scattering is used to determine lateral and transversal correlations, distortions, density, and porosity. In-plane gracing incidence diffraction is employed to study lateral correlations of thinnest organic and inorganic layers as well as depth profiling. Finally, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) can determine the size, shape, distribution, orientation, and correlation of nano-particles present in solids or solutions. Rigaku technology and expertise are combined to provide a number of X-ray diffraction products for nanotechnology applications.