微区域X射线残余应力分析仪

使用等倾法和侧倾法测定高精度微区域残余应力

AutoMATE II

残余应力也许在材料制造过程中出现,或是经过多年操作积累下的。无论是哪种情况,这种应力会给产品质量、耐久性和使用寿命带来消极影响。残余应力的精确检测是品质管理的重要因素,并有助于预测产品使用寿命。

以前,如果需要高精度残余应力测定,不得不使用具有高精度测角仪的R&D衍射仪。但是这样就限制了测定样品的重量和尺寸。另一方面,专用的实验室和工厂车间残余应力分析仪由于机械设计的性质而导致精度下降,同时它们具有测定大型重型部件的灵活性。

通过使用AutoMATE II,你将获得最佳结果。可以高精度测定大型和中型部件(30kg标准手动Z台,20kg选购自动XYZ台)。这是由于X射线源和探测器机械手臂安装在一个高精度双轴测角仪中,可以相对于测定位置进行定位,并在使用自动XYZ台时执行0.1微米精度的扫描。

AutoMATE II的最新功能在创新X射线探测器中。该探测器为D/teX Ultra1000,电子性硅带状探测器具有高动态范围、高灵敏度和高能量分辨率,并且无需任何消耗气体。

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Features

  • 高精度测角仪实现微区残余应力测定
  • 自动描画测定附有教学功能
  • 高精度测定大型重型样品
  • 当X射线快门打开时,附有联锁系统的X射线防辐射罩自动锁定防辐射门
  • 测定位置通过一个具有缩放功能的CCD相机进行调整
  • 双轴测角仪系统在无需样品位置调整的条件下实现自动等倾法和侧倾法
Table 1. Specifications of Automate II
X-ray generator
Maximum power 3 kW (Tube voltage 20 - 50 kV, Tube current 2 - 50 mA)
Stability  ±0.03 % (Power fluctuation within ±10%)
X-ray tube Standard: Cr (Maximum load 2 kW), Effective focus size 1 × 10 mm2 (N.F.), Short type
Option: Cu (2 kW), Co (1.8 kW), Fe (1.5 kW), V (0.3 kW)
Goniometer
2θ scanning range  2θ = 98° to 168° (Central angle range of D/teX Ultra 1000 2θc = 108° to 158°)
ψ angle range ψ = 0° to +60° (at maximum)
Oscillation range ψp = ±1° to ±10°
Incident collimator Standard: φ150 μm, φ1 mm
Option: φ30 μm, φ50 μm, φ100 μm, φ300 μm, φ500 μm, φ2 mm, φ4 mm
Distance X-ray source - sample:  265 mm
Sample - detector:  210 mm
Sample stage
Standard: Manual Z stage Lab. jack (Model LJA-16223)
Maximum sample space: 720 mm (W) × 560 mm (D) × 540 mm (H)
Stage dimensions: 160 mm × 220 mm
Maximum load: 30 kg
Option:  Auto XYZ stage Maximum sample space: 720 mm (W) × 560 mm (D) × 335 mm (H)
Stroke: X-Y axis = ±50 mm, Z axis = -5 mm to + 35 mm
Stage dimensions: 150 mm × 150 mm
Maximum load: 20 kg
X-ray shutter  Rotary shutter
Sample alignment system  CCD camera Magnification: ×22 to ×135 (Field of vision  6 mm to 1 mm)
Focal distance: 90 mm
Detector (D/teX Ultra 1000)
Dimension  One dimension (Semiconductor system)
Number of channels 1024 ch
Maximum counting rate 1 × 106 cps/ch × 1024 ch (Total 1 Gcps/all)
2θ angle resolution  0.02° (Strip width 75 μm/line)
Window area 76.8 mm × 10 mm
Size, Weight 135 mm (W) × 95 mm (D) × 100 mm (H), 1.4 kg
Kβ filter Standard: V (Cr)Option: Ni (Cu), Fe (Co), Mn (Fe), Ti (V)

Table II. Specifications of software

Software Residual stress
(Measurement)
sin2ψ method
Iso-inclination method, Side-inclination method
ψ0-fixed method
X-Y teaching function
Residual stress
(Data processing)
Batch processing of multiple data
Smoothing
Background elimination
LPA correction
Kα1, Kα2 separation
Peak search (FWHM center method, Parabolic approximation method,
Center of gravity method, FW2/3M center method, FW2/5M center method)
Retained austenite
(Measurement)
α-Fe(211): 2θ = 156.40° (Cr Kα), γ-Fe(220): 2θ = 128.83° (Cr Kα)
X-Y teaching function
Retained austenite
(Data processing)
Batch processing of multiple data
Normalization factor of diffraction intensity: R = 0.36746 (or user setting value)

Table III. Specifications of utilities

Cooling water system
(TCA2KCN-D)
Cooling system  Air-cooled water chiller
Cooling capacity 2 kW
Cooling temperature range 15°C to 25°C
Computer PC Desktop personal computer
OS Windows® 7 Professional (32 bit)
Display 19" TFT
Printer Ink jet color printer
Computer rack Vertical type

Evaluation of the effects of shot-peening treatment on the surface of a spring by X-ray stress measurement

Shot-peening treatment is applied to the spring surface. The residual stress along the depth direction is evaluated with AutoMATE II. The figure shows that the compressive residual stress on the sample surface is equivalent to -410 MPa and the maximum compressive residual stress, at the depth of 60 microns from the sample surface, is equivalent to -600 MPa. It also shows that in the deeper areas than 60 microns from the surface the compressive residual stress is getting smaller and smaller along the depth direction, indicating the typical stress state for the shot-peening.

Mapping measurement of the weld bead on a SUS304 plate

On the weld bead, the residual stress is approximately equal to zero. Tensile stresses from 200 MPa to 300 MPa are observed in the heat-treated area in the base metal. In the sandblasted area, the mapping chart shows that the tensile stress has changed to the compressive stress of about -1000 MPa by the sandblast treatment. By using the CCD camera with a zoom function, the images of the sandblasted and non-sandblasted areas are recorded as shown in the pictures.



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