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Geology and minerals


Phase, elemental and chemical analysis

In studying planetary processes and makeup of the Earth, geologists routinely analyze the composition and molecular structure of rock and mineral samples. Long having been central tools in geological research, X-ray analytical techniques have become more powerful with small spot excitation, mapping, and standardless quantitative analysis. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the key technique for characterizing the element composition of geological materials. The latest generation of wavelength dispersive XRF instrumentation employs a small analyzing area and an XY-stage to automatically make multiple measurements of a sample to produce a chemical composition map. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is employed to quantitatively measure phase composition. Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data is now recognized as the most powerful method available for quantitative crystalline phase analysis. Rigaku technology and expertise provide a number of unique solutions for these determinations.


The following applications are relevant to this industry